As a district of Rome, it encompasses the Vatican City State, as well as the surrounding Roman neighbourhoods of Borgo and Prati. This small slice of the city is packed with more history and artwork than most cities in the world, and indeed many countries.
Although the Vatican City is not a signatory to the Schengen agreement, there are no immigration formalities involved in crossing the border from Italy to Vatican City and vice versa, making it a de facto part of the Schengen area.
Entry to the Vatican is as simple as travel to any other part of Rome, though you do have to go through a metal detector when entering the museums or St. Peter's Square.
The centre of the Catholic world, this magnificent basilica with its Michelangelo-designed dome has an awe-inspiring interior. This place is huge, but everything is in such proportion that the scale escapes you. Construction of the basilica began in 1506 and it was not completed until the end of 1626.
While guidebooks do their best to provide an aid for viewing the collections inside the Vatican, a guided tour is a far better way to make sure you get the most out of your visit.
Since Vatican City is a Papal state, respect for the Roman Catholic Church and its practices and doctrine is encouraged.